|Finishing Of Textiles|
Finishing or processing methods tissuesFabric textile setting from the loom is called tissue. Such a fabric that has a pristine view, called severe or severe tissue. Before such a fabric would be realized, it must be one of the trim fabric processing techniques. Finish fabric gives it the desired look and certain properties that are needed for a particular type of tissue. Fabrics designed for different applications are processed in completely different ways.
At the moment, the range is amazing its extraordinary diversity. Quality modern fabrics was several times higher than it was before. It's all made possible thanks to the emergence of various methods of finishing.
Finish fabric: what it is?
Textile finishing is chemical processing method, sometimes processing tkaneyproizvoditsya mechanically. In such processes, various chemicals used in the production of tissue contrast to spinning and weaving techniques, where the fiber is exclusively mechanical action.
In the deepest sense of the concept of tissue processing is to recruit the following processes - bleaching, dyeing, printing, as well as refinement of the tissue, which is the final stage. In the narrow sense of Tissue Processing is the final stage of the treatment itself tissues, namely the processes of dressing fabrics, drying and expansion, the elimination of possible distortions in warp and weft, cut, smoothing, softening, dekatirovku, shrinkage compensated finish and so on. These are all the processes that are designed to improve the quality and appearance of the fabric, help to increase the resilience of the negative effects of tissue for subsequent operation.
To have at least some idea of treating the tissue, it is possible to perform a brief description of the main methods of processing the tissue used in the decoration.
Sizing is the impregnation of the fabric with a special compound. To conduct dressing applied formulations based is starch, synthetic resins, dextrin and others. This method is the oldest method of treating fabrics. With this method of treatment of fabrics they become more rigid, dense, heavy wrinkle. There are also methods for dressing which impart fabric water repellent.
Dekatirovka is a method of treatment of wool fabrics with hot water or steam, in order to avoid shrinkage of tissue for subsequent operation and wear, and also allows you to make a more attractive appearance of the fabric. Processing tissue landing is made on special equipment. Dekatirovka can be dry or wet.
Carbonation is a process of treating fabrics of wool with a weak solution of sulfuric acid. As a result of such a finish of tissue removed vegetable impurities. Wool not apply dilute acids, but plant fibers from them destroyed. Impurities that may be present in the wool, with this method finishes converted into a fine powder which is easily removed by washing the wool with water, and the remainder will be removed by drying and subsequent finishing of wool by special scutching machines.
Dyeing is the process of treating tissue staining method. Dyeing process is carried out using special dyes: direct, sulfur, acid, vat, disperse, active and others. The result of dyeing is to obtain dyed fabrics.
Mercerizing is a process of treating fabrics of cotton concentrated alkalis taut. Such finishing process imparts greater strength, luster and softness, and other properties that improve the appearance. Mercerizing is based on the change in the properties of cellulose under the influence of alkali.
Ozhivka is a method of treating fabrics of silk. Ozhivka almost always to pass through an acid bath, and sometimes heated with a solution of organic acids, typically oxalic, citric or tartaric acid. Sometimes it can be used, and mineral salts. With this treatment the silk becomes nobler to view while improving color hue, as well as its intensity.
Bleaching is a process of tissue processing using all kinds of bleaching solutions. With such a method of processing tissue may be removed and various impurities eliminated undesirable natural color of the fabric fibers to make them white and prepared for subsequent dyeing. This method is most often used for cotton and linen.
Printing is a method of treating fabric by applying ink pattern, which may consist of one or several different colors, as a result - the preparation of various patterns on the fabric. To keep the shape of the picture, the dye must be applied in a dense state. Drawing is usually applied by means of special devices. To secure the printed pattern after application is necessary to make a steam treatment tissue. The printing process is sometimes called padding and fabric treated in this way are referred to as printed or padded.
Specific аabric finishing
Decorations made increasingly diverse ways. Are increasingly used in specific finishes. Examples of these finishes include: fishnet patterns, metallization, calendaring and more. It is possible to describe some of them.
Fishnet patterns are obtained by finishing a drawing with a weak acid solution. This method can be applied only to polukapronovym fibers.
Calendering is a process of treating a fabric with a calender, that is between the hot rolling rolls. This process turns into flat round thread. As it turns silvery sheen.
Metallization is a finish by applying a thin layer of metal. With this method of decoration may be used copper, aluminum, tin, cadmium, silver, gold, zinc and other metals.